数据结构+算法=程序
程序+设计模式=框架

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SpringCloudAlibaba入门系列(2) - 微服务环境搭建

摘要:通过使用电商项目中的商品、订单、用户为案例进行实例演示。

2.1 案例准备

2.1.1 技术选型

maven:3.3.9
数据库:MySQL 5.7
持久层: SpingData Jpa
其他: SpringCloud Alibaba 技术栈

2.1.2 模块设计

springcloud-alibaba 父工程
shop-common 公共模块【实体类】
shop-user 用户微服务 【端口: 807x】
shop-product 商品微服务 【端口: 808x】
shop-order 订单微服务 【端口: 809x】

2.1.3 微服务调用

在微服务架构中,最常见的场景就是微服务之间的相互调用。我们以电商系统中常见的用户下单为例来演示微服务的调用:客户向订单微服务发起一个下单的请求,在进行保存订单之前需要调用商品微服务查询商品的信息。

我们一般把服务的主动调用方称为服务消费者,把服务的被调用方称为服务提供者

在这种场景下,订单微服务就是一个服务消费者, 商品微服务就是一个服务提供者。

2.2 创建父工程

创建一个maven工程,然后在pom.xml文件中添加下面内容

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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
<modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

<parent>
<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-parent</artifactId>
<version>2.1.3.RELEASE</version>
</parent>

<groupId>com.taiji</groupId>
<artifactId>springcloud-alibaba</artifactId>
<packaging>pom</packaging>
<version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>

<properties>
<java.version>1.8</java.version>
<project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
<project.reporting.outputEncoding>UTF-8</project.reporting.outputEncoding>
<spring-cloud.version>Greenwich.RELEASE</spring-cloud.version>
<spring-cloud-alibaba.version>2.1.0.RELEASE</spring-cloud-alibaba.version>
</properties>
<dependencyManagement>
<dependencies>
<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-cloud-dependencies</artifactId>
<version>${spring-cloud.version}</version>
<type>pom</type>
<scope>import</scope>
</dependency>
<dependency>
<groupId>com.alibaba.cloud</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-cloud-alibaba-dependencies</artifactId>
<version>${spring-cloud-alibaba.version}</version>
<type>pom</type>
<scope>import</scope>
</dependency>
</dependencies>
</dependencyManagement>
</project>

版本对应:

2.3 创建基础模块

1 创建shop-common 模块,在pom.xml中添加依赖

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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
<parent>
<artifactId>springcloud-alibaba</artifactId>
<groupId>com.taiji</groupId>
<version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
</parent>
<modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

<artifactId>shop-common</artifactId>
<dependencies>
<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-data-jpa</artifactId>
<version>2.3.0.RELEASE</version>
</dependency>
<dependency>
<groupId>org.projectlombok</groupId>
<artifactId>lombok</artifactId>
<version>1.18.2</version>
</dependency>
<dependency>
<groupId>com.alibaba</groupId>
<artifactId>fastjson</artifactId>
<version>1.2.56</version>
</dependency>
<dependency>
<groupId>mysql</groupId>
<artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
<version>5.1.6</version>
</dependency>
</dependencies>
</project>

2 创建实体类

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//User.java
//用户
@Entity(name = "shop_user")
@Data
public class User {
@Id
@GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.IDENTITY)
private Integer uid;//主键
private String username;//用户名
private String password;//密码
private String telephone;//手机号
}
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//Product.java
//商品
@Entity(name = "shop_product")
@Data
public class Product {
@Id
@GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.IDENTITY) private Integer pid;//主键
private String pname;//商品名称
private Double pprice;//商品价格
private Integer stock;//库存
}
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//Order.java
//订单
@Entity(name = "shop_order")
@Data //加上Data装饰器,无需指定get和set方法
public class Order {
@Id
@GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.IDENTITY)
private Long oid;//订单id
private Integer uid;//用户id
private String username;//用户名
private Integer pid;//商品id
private String pname;//商品名称
private Double pprice;//商品单价
private Integer number;//购买数量
}

2.4 创建用户微服务

步骤:

  1. 创建模块 导入依赖
  2. 创建SpringBoot主类
  3. 加入配置文件
  4. 创建必要的接口和实现类(controller service dao)

新建一个shop-user 模块,然后进行下面操作

1 创建pom.xml

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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
<parent>
<artifactId>springcloud-alibaba</artifactId>
<groupId>com.taiji</groupId>
<version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
</parent>
<modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

<artifactId>shop-user</artifactId>
<dependencies>
<dependency>
<groupId>com.taiji</groupId>
<artifactId>shop-common</artifactId>
<version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
</dependency>
</dependencies>
</project>

2 编写主类UserApplication.java

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@SpringBootApplication
public class UserApplication {
public static void main(String[] args) {
SpringApplication.run(UserApplication.class, args);
}
}

3 创建配置文件application.yml

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server:
port: 8071
spring:
application:
name: service-user
datasource:
driver-class-name: com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
url: jdbc:mysql:///shop?serverTimezone=UTC&useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=utf-8&useSSL=true
username: root
password: root
jpa:
properties:
hibernate:
hbm2ddl:
auto: update
dialect: org.hibernate.dialect.MySQL5InnoDBDialect

2.5 创建商品微服务

1 创建一个名为shop_product 的模块,并添加springboot依赖

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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
<parent>
<artifactId>springcloud-alibaba</artifactId>
<groupId>com.taiji</groupId>
<version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
</parent>
<modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

<artifactId>shop-product</artifactId>
<dependencies>
<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
</dependency>
<dependency>
<groupId>com.taiji</groupId>
<artifactId>shop-common</artifactId>
<version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
</dependency>
</dependencies>
</project>

2 创建工程的主类ProductApplication.java

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@SpringBootApplication
public class ProductApplication {
public static void main(String[] args) {
SpringApplication.run(ProductApplication.class, args);
}
}

3 创建配置文件application.yml

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server:
port: 8081
spring:
application:
name: service-product
datasource:
driver-class-name: com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
url: jdbc:mysql:///shop?serverTimezone=UTC&useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=utf-8&useSSL=true
username: root
password: root
jpa:
properties:
hibernate:
hbm2ddl:
auto: update
dialect: org.hibernate.dialect.MySQL5InnoDBDialect

4 创建ProductDao接口

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public interface ProductDao extends JpaRepository<Product,Integer> {
}

5 创建ProductService接口和实现类

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public interface ProductService {
Product findByPid(Integer pid);
}
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@Service
public class ProductServiceImpl implements ProductService {
@Autowired
private ProductDao productDao;

public Product findByPid(Integer pid) {
return productDao.findById(pid).get();
}
}

6 创建Controller

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@RestController
@Slf4j
public class ProductController {
@Autowired
private ProductService productService;

@RequestMapping("/product/{pid}")
public Product product(@PathVariable("pid")Integer pid){
log.info("接下来要进行{}号商品信息的查询",pid);

Product product=productService.findByPid(pid);

log.info("商品信息查询成功,内容为{}", JSON.toJSONString(product));

return product;
}
}

7 启动工程,等到数据库表创建完毕之后,加入测试数据

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INSERT INTO shop_product VALUE(NULL,'小米','1000','5000');
INSERT INTO shop_product VALUE(NULL,'华为','2000','5000');
INSERT INTO shop_product VALUE(NULL,'苹果','3000','5000');
INSERT INTO shop_product VALUE(NULL,'OPPO','4000','5000');

8 通过浏览器访问服务

2.6 创建订单微服务

1 创建一个名为shop-order 的模块,并添加springboot依赖

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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
<parent>
<artifactId>springcloud-alibaba</artifactId>
<groupId>com.taiji</groupId>
<version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
</parent>
<modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

<artifactId>shop-order</artifactId>

<dependencies>
<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
</dependency>
<dependency>
<groupId>com.taiji</groupId>
<artifactId>shop-common</artifactId>
<version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
</dependency>
</dependencies>
</project>

2 创建工程的主类OrderApplication.java

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@SpringBootApplication
public class UserApplication {
public static void main(String[] args) {
SpringApplication.run(UserApplication.class, args);
}
}

3 创建配置文件application.yml

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server:
port: 8091
spring:
application:
name: service-order
datasource:
driver-class-name: com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
url: jdbc:mysql:///shop?serverTimezone=UTC&useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=utf-8&useSSL=true
username: root
password: root
jpa:
properties:
hibernate:
hbm2ddl:
auto: update
dialect: org.hibernate.dialect.MySQL5InnoDBDialect

4 创建OrderDao接口

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public interface OrderDao extends JpaRepository<Order,Integer> {
}

5 创建OrderService接口和实现类

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public interface OrderService {
void createOrder(Order order);
}
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@Service
public class OrderServiceImpl implements OrderService {
@Autowired
private OrderDao orderDao;

public void createOrder(Order order) {
orderDao.save(order);
}
}

6 创建RestTemplate

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@SpringBootApplication
public class OrderApplication {
public static void main(String[] args) {
SpringApplication.run(OrderApplication.class, args);
}

@Bean
public RestTemplate restTemplate(){
return new RestTemplate();
}
}

7 创建Controller

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@RestController
@Slf4j
public class OrderController {
@Autowired
private RestTemplate restTemplate;
@Autowired
private OrderService orderService;

@RequestMapping("/order/prod/{pid}")
public Order order(@PathVariable("pid") Integer pid) {
log.info("接收到{}号商品的下单请求,接下来调用商品微服务查询此商品信息", pid);

///1 一旦服务提供者的地址信息变化了,就得修改服务调用者的代码
///2 一旦服务提供者做了集群,服务调用者一方无法实现负载均衡的去调用
///3 一旦微服务变得越来越多,如何管理这个服务清单就成了问题
Product product = restTemplate.getForObject("http://localhost:8081/product/" + pid, Product.class);

log.info("查询到{}号商品的信息,内容是{}", pid, JSON.toJSONString(product));

Order order = new Order();
order.setUid(1);
order.setUsername("测试用户");
order.setPid(product.getPid());
order.setPname(product.getPname());
order.setPprice(product.getPprice());
order.setNumber(1);

orderService.createOrder(order);
log.info("创建订单成功,订单信息为{}", JSON.toJSONString(order));

return order;
}
}

8 启动工程,通过浏览器访问服务进行测试